Camping Gear, Tents, Survival and Emergency Preparedness

Natural Disaster Preparedness – Avalanches

Avalanches are a powerful and potentially deadly natural disaster, especially in mountainous and snow-prone regions. Proper preparation and knowledge of avalanche safety measures are crucial to reduce the risks associated with avalanches. Here are steps and tips for avalanche preparedness:

Education and Training:
Obtain formal training in avalanche safety and rescue techniques from reputable organizations and experienced professionals.

Check Avalanche Forecasts:
Monitor daily avalanche forecasts and bulletins provided by local avalanche centers or weather services to stay informed about current snow and avalanche conditions.

Travel in Groups:
Always travel with a group when in avalanche-prone areas. It’s essential to have partners for assistance in case of an avalanche.

Use Proper Equipment:
Wear appropriate avalanche safety gear, including an avalanche transceiver (beacon), probe, and shovel. Make sure you and your group know how to use this equipment effectively.

Plan Your Route:
Plan your route carefully and assess the avalanche risk for the area you intend to visit. Choose safe routes, avoiding high-risk areas with a history of avalanches.

Communicate Your Plan:
Inform a reliable person about your travel plans, including your route, expected return time, and emergency contacts. Check in with them upon your return.

Be Weather-Wise:
Pay attention to weather forecasts, especially snowfall and temperature patterns, as these significantly impact avalanche conditions.

Understand Snow Conditions:
Learn about the different types of snow, layers, and conditions that can lead to avalanches, such as weak layers or rapid warming.

Recognize Avalanche Terrain:
Be able to identify potential avalanche terrain, including steep slopes, gullies, and areas where snow accumulates.

Assess Snowpack Stability:
Conduct snowpack stability assessments using techniques like snowpit analysis to evaluate the risk of avalanches and make informed decisions.

Practice Safe Travel Techniques:
Spread out and maintain safe distances between group members to minimize the risk of multiple people being caught in an avalanche.

Rescue Training:
Familiarize yourself and your group with avalanche rescue procedures and conduct regular drills to ensure everyone knows how to respond quickly and efficiently.

Follow Local Guidelines and Regulations:
Abide by local guidelines, regulations, and advisories related to avalanche safety and backcountry travel.

Stay Informed During the Trip:
Continuously assess the avalanche risk and conditions during your trip, adjusting your plans accordingly if the risk increases.

Seek Professional Guidance:
Consider hiring a certified guide or avalanche expert if you are not experienced in assessing avalanche risks and conditions.

Remember, prevention and education are key components of avalanche safety. Always prioritize caution and preparedness when venturing into avalanche-prone areas.


Being caught in an avalanche is a serious and life-threatening situation. Here are essential things to do if you find yourself caught in an avalanche:

  1. Stay Calm: Try to remain as calm as possible. Panic can hinder clear thinking and decision-making.
  2. Protect Your Airway: Cover your mouth and nose with one hand to create an air pocket. This can help you breathe easier and prevent snow from entering your airway.
  3. Try to Stay on Top: As the avalanche starts to slow down, try to keep yourself as close to the surface as possible. Swim and struggle to stay on top of the moving snow.
  4. Grab onto Something Stable: If you are near a tree or a large rock, try to grab onto it to anchor yourself and prevent being buried deeper.
  5. Deploy an Avalanche Airbag: If you have an avalanche airbag, deploy it. These devices can increase your surface area and may help you stay closer to the top of the avalanche debris.
  6. Swim and Roll: Make swimming motions and try to roll with the avalanche to stay on top of the moving snow. This can help prevent burial.
  7. Create Space: Create space around your face to ensure a supply of air. Move your arms and legs to create a larger void around your body.
  8. Yell and Signal: Yell to alert others that you are in distress. Use any available tools, such as a whistle, to make noise and signal your location to rescuers.
  9. Try to Position Yourself Upslope: If possible, position yourself in an upright sitting position facing uphill. This can help you create an air pocket in front of your face.
  10. Fight to Stay at the Surface: As the avalanche slows down, continue to fight to stay on top of the debris until it comes to a stop. Once it stops, the snow around you will quickly harden, making it difficult to move.


Surviving an avalanche and being stuck in the aftermath means immediate action is crucial. Here are steps to take after being caught in an avalanche:

  1. Try to Clear Airspace: Once the avalanche comes to a stop, clear a space around your face for breathing. Use a punching motion to create an air pocket. This will help you breathe more easily and buy time for rescue.
  2. Assess Your Situation: Evaluate your surroundings and determine the extent of your burial. Try to ascertain which direction is up and how deep you are beneath the snow.
  3. Activate Avalanche Beacon: If you are equipped with an avalanche transceiver (beacon), turn it to the “search” mode to help rescuers locate you. If others in your group are buried, they should do the same.
  4. Signal: If you have a whistle or other signaling device, use it to attract attention. Yell, shout, or use any means available to make noise and signal your location.
  5. Stay Calm: Panicking uses up valuable oxygen and energy. Focus on conserving energy and staying calm while awaiting rescue.
  6. Create Space: Continue to create space around your face by moving your arms and legs. This will help maintain an air pocket and reduce the risk of suffocation.
  7. Attempt to Dig: If you have a clear idea of the direction of the surface, start digging upward to create an airway. Use your hands or any available tools, such as an avalanche shovel or probe.
  8. Breathe Slowly: Conserve oxygen by breathing slowly and deeply. Rapid breathing can increase carbon dioxide levels in the air pocket.
  9. Stay Oriented: Maintain awareness of your surroundings and the passage of time. This will help rescuers locate you more efficiently.
  10. Wait for Rescue: If you are unable to self-rescue, stay in place and wait for rescuers. They will use avalanche probes and transceivers to locate and extract buried individuals.


When venturing into avalanche terrain, it’s essential to carry a specific set of emergency gear to increase your chances of survival and aid in rescue efforts. Here’s a list of essential avalanche safety equipment:

  1. Avalanche Transceiver (Beacon): A personal avalanche transceiver is a crucial piece of gear. It emits a signal that rescuers can use to locate you if buried. Make sure everyone in your group is equipped and knows how to use their transceiver.
  2. Avalanche Probe: An avalanche probe is a collapsible pole that rescuers use to probe the snow to locate buried victims. It’s an essential tool for pinpointing the exact location of a buried person.
  3. Avalanche Shovel: A compact, lightweight shovel is used for digging out a buried person quickly. Look for a durable, collapsible design that is easy to carry in your backpack.
  4. Avalanche Airbag: An avalanche airbag is a backpack with an integrated airbag system that, when deployed, increases your volume and helps you stay closer to the surface of the avalanche debris. This can reduce burial depth and increase your chances of survival.
  5. Helmet: A helmet is crucial for protecting your head during an avalanche, especially if you are carried into rocks or trees. Choose a helmet designed for both skiing and snowboarding.
  6. Avalanche Safety Whistle: A loud whistle can be an effective signaling tool, helping rescuers locate you. Attach it to your clothing or gear where it can be easily accessed.
  7. Snow Saw or Multi-Tool: A snow saw or a multi-tool with a saw can be useful for cutting through snow blocks during rescue operations or for creating stable snowpack assessments.
  8. Communication Device: Carry a fully charged mobile phone, radio, or other communication devices to call for help. Keep it in a waterproof and shock-resistant case.
  9. First Aid Kit: A basic first aid kit with supplies for treating injuries is essential. Include items such as bandages, antiseptic wipes, and any personal medications.
  10. Navigation Tools: Carry a map, compass, or GPS device to help with navigation in case you need to find your way or communicate your location to rescuers.
  11. Weather Protection: Bring adequate clothing, including waterproof and windproof layers, to protect yourself from the elements during an extended wait for rescue.

It’s important to note that survival rates decrease rapidly after 15 minutes of burial. Swift rescue is critical. Always ensure you and your group have proper avalanche safety equipment and are trained in its use. Prevention, education, and responsible decision-making in avalanche terrain are crucial for reducing the risk of getting caught in an avalanche in the first place.

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